Depending on the severity of your symptoms and your physical health, the treatment of osteoarthritis may differ. The first steps are exercising and in case of obesity, weight loss. For some patients, these two steps are the only necessary ones and will give the needed pain relief. In more severe cases, medication or even surgery may be necessary.
Pain relief for arthritis
Exercising: The optimum exercise program will aim at strengthening the muscles and improve general fitness. Strengthening the muscles will also strengthen the joints and keep you mobile. It is important to get a program from someone who knows about osteoarthritis, either your PCP or a physical therapist since some exercises can damage your joints.
Weight loss: The joints get more stressed if they are carrying a lot of weight so weight loss will help reduce pain, in the case of obesity or being overweight. Your diet may also influence your symptoms, since some foods cause inflammation. Eating these foods is like pouring gasoline on the fire ! Try and eat anti-inflammatory foods instead.
Painkillers: If your symptoms are more severe, your PCP may recommend pain killers such as acetaminophen or NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). NSAIDs are a stronger kind of painkiller, which reduce inflammation. They come as pills and as creams, so you can do a more local treatment for the affected joint. If these don't relieve your pain, your PCP may give you a prescription for capsaicin cream, which blocks the nerves that send pain messages.
Injections: If the pain killers are not relieving the pain effectively enough, you can get intra-articular injections of corticosteroid directly into the affected joint. These reduce both swelling and pain.
Surgery: A last resort is surgery. Osteoarthritis is rarely so severe that it is necessary. Surgery can significantly improve your mobility and quality of life, but it is not guaranteed that it can relieve all of your symptoms. Surgery cannot cure osteoarthritis. There are different kinds of surgery :
- Arthroplasty : Joint replacement. Most commonly used for knee and hip replacements. Your entire joint will be replaced with a prosthesis and can last up to 20 years.
- Arthrodesis : Fusing the joint in a permanent position. This means that you will no longer be able to move your joint, but it will be stronger and therefore cause less pain.
- Osteotomy : If you are too young for a hip or knee replacement, you may get an osteotomy. This surgery aims at realigning the hip or knee by either adding or removing a small piece of bone. The realignment will take the stress away from the affected area.
Source: UK National Health Service